Quiz: SonoPath Summit Lecture Series; Cardiology (20-1095138)

Quiz: SonoPath Summit Lecture Series; Cardiology (20-1095138)


*Technicians please put N/A
(Use the following profession codes for this board: Veterinarian=V; Veterinarian Technician=VT) SELECT FROM DROPDOWN!


Radiographic Findings of Heart Disease – How the Cardiologist Evaluates Films

1. Right ventricular enlargement on a ventrodorsal radiograph results in what radiographic sign?(Required)
2. Which radiographic measurement is more specific to left heart enlargement than the vertebral heart score?(Required)
3. Which of the following regarding the vertebral heart score (VHS) is CORRECT?(Required)
4. The hallmark features of left-sided congestive heart failure in the dog are…?(Required)
5. Which of the following are differential diagnoses for a nodular lung pattern?(Required)

Chronic Cough in the Dog: Diagnostic Algorithm for a Common Complaint

1. Most of the cough receptors in the dog are located where?(Required)
2. Which two laryngeal conditions are frequently associated with cough in dogs?(Required)
3. Which phase of breathing and location of airway collapse are correctly matched?(Required)
4. The definitive test for the diagnosis of chronic bronchiHs in dogs is what?(Required)
5. Which treatment is most effective for cough suppression in dogs?(Required)

Spectrum of Canine Heart Disease

1. The most common form of heart disease in dogs is what?(Required)
2. The phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy may develop in dogs secondary to which of the following underlying etiologies?(Required)
3. Which heart disease is commonly diagnosed in dogs of Boxer or Bulldog ancestry?(Required)
4. What 3 forms of congenital heart disease are the most prevalent in dogs?(Required)
5. The test of choice to diagnose pericardial effusion in the dog is what?(Required)

Heartworm Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

1. The heartworm antigen test detects what substance?(Required)
2. The microfilariae of heartworm represent what stage of the heartworm lifecycle?(Required)
3. Steroids are often prescribed to dogs with heartworm infection to treat what condition?(Required)
4. Which of the following factors have likely contributed to increased heartworm prevalence?(Required)
5. Why is doxycycline used in the treatment of heartworm infection?(Required)

Systemic Hypertension – Causes and Treatments

1. What are the target organs that are damaged by systemic hypertension?(Required)
2. What factors have been shown to increased measured blood pressure in cats?(Required)
3. Disease of which organ is often associated with systemic hypertension?(Required)
4. Treatment of systemic hypertension should occur in what clinical situation?(Required)
5. Chronic oral therapy for systemic hypertension most often includes what drug?(Required)

Staging of Heart Disease in Dogs

1. Which stage of heart disease is defined by the presence of congestive heart failure (either current or previously diagnosed)?(Required)
2. The vertebral heart score (VHS) normalizes heart dimensions to which anatomic structure?(Required)
3. Establishing a diagnosis of stage B2 mitral valve disease is currently based on measures of what two chambers?(Required)
4. The EPIC trial found that treatment with which drug prolonged the time to heart failure and overall survival in dogs with stage B2 mitral valve disease?(Required)
5. What diagnostic test is the gold standard to diagnose left-sided congestive heart failure in dogs?(Required)

Evidence-Based Therapies of Heart Disease in Dogs

1. What drug treatment is recommended for dogs with stage B1 mitral valve disease?(Required)
2. What drug regimen is recommended for the treatment of stage B2 dilated cardiomyopathy?(Required)
3. What drug regimen is recommended for the treatment of congestive heart failure in dogs?(Required)
4. What dietary recommendation is advisable for dogs in congestive heart failure?(Required)
5. What is the definitive method to treat mitral valve regurgitation?(Required)

Is this cat a cardiac patient? A European pragmatic and practical approach

1. Radiographs are a useful tool to rule out cardiac disease in cats(Required)
2. A heart murmur in a cat is always associated with advanced cardiac disease(Required)
3. A positive bedside NT-proBNP (Snap Feline proBNP-Test) proves the presence of left sided congestive heart failure(Required)
4. The louder the heart murmur the more advanced the cardiomyopathy. Is this true in cats?(Required)
5. Cats in congestive heart failure are always tachycardic.(Required)

Feline Cardiomyopathies: To pill or not to pill – What's the evidence?

1. Current established guidelines for treatment of feline cardiomyopathies are all based on the highest level of evidence (Level I )(Required)
2. There are a lot of randomized, controlled prospective studies supporting the use of calcium channel blockers in cats(Required)
3. Treatment decisions for individual cats shall also incorporate the character and life circumstances of the individual as well as the compliance and abilities of the owners(Required)
4. It has been clearly shown that chronic treatment of HCM with Pimobendan prolongs life and improves quality of life in affected cats(Required)
5. ACE-Inhibitors are particularly effective in early stages of HCM in cats.(Required)

The different faces of DCM – Suspicion, Diagnosis and Staging Recommendations

1. Dilated Cardiomyopathy is always genetic(Required)
2. Dilated Cardiomyopathy is similar in terms of presentation, progression and diagnostic findings across all breeds(Required)
3. It has been clearly shown that Hypothyroidism is the main cause of Doberman Cardiomyopathy(Required)
4. Taurine deficiency is a typical cause of DCM in Chihuahuas(Required)
5. Holter-ECG is a valuable screening tool for DCM in Doberman Pinschers(Required)

Weakness and syncope: The heart or not the heart?

1. Heart rate is linearly correlated with cardiac output(Required)
2. Supraventricular tachycardia can cause significant weakness(Required)
3. Severe pulmonic stenosis can cause syncope in dogs(Required)
4. Severe subaortic stenosis can never cause syncope in dogs(Required)
5. Sick Sinus Syndrome is an important differential diagnosis in Terrier breeds with Syncope(Required)

Right heart disease in dogs: Congenital and acquired

1. Right heart hypertrophy usually causes a tall R-wave on the EKG(Required)
2. Congestive right heart failure is characterized by fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity (ascites)(Required)
3. Tricuspid dysplasia is frequently seen in small dog breeds(Required)
4. Pulmonic stenosis can cause right ventricular concentric hypertrophy (thickening)(Required)
5. ARVC is a disease that is mostly seen in Boxer dogs(Required)

Is there a B2 + stage for MMVD? European Perspective

1. Chest radiographs can unequivocally distinguish between the presence and the absence of left sided congestive heart failure(Required)
2. A sleeping/resting respiratory rate of <30/min rules out congestive heart failure in all breeds and sizes of dogs(Required)
3. Exercise intolerance is a reliable indicator for the presence of congestive heart failure in dogs(Required)
4. It has been clearly shown that low-dose diuretic treatment in dogs suffering from advanced degenerative mitral valve disease will shorten their life expectancy(Required)
5. The aim of medical treatment is to maintain quality of life, to prevent from suffering and – by all means – not to harm the patient(Required)

What is the evidence for treatment of MMVD? (review of literature, treatment plan at each stage) European Approach

1. The stages B1 and B2 (degenerative mitral valve disease) are distinguished by(Required)
2. There’s a huge benefit for treatment of B2 DMVD dogs with ACE-Inhibitors and this is based on a high level of evidence(Required)
3. A benefit of therapy with Pimobendan in stage B2 dogs is based on a high level of evidence(Required)
4. The detection of cardiac enlargement by echocardiography is more reliable than based on chest radiographs alone(Required)
5. The use of ACEI-Inhibitors + Spironolactone additionally to Pimobendan and diuretics in the management of chronic heart failure caused by DMVD makes sense(Required)

Classification and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension

1. What hemodynamic variables impact pulmonary arterial pressure?(Required)
2. Which of the following echocardiographic finding supports a high probability of pulmonary hypertension?(Required)
3. What is the preferred treatment for group 2 pulmonary hypertension (secondary to leG heart disease)?(Required)
4. What is the drug of choice for pulmonary hypertension not associated with left heart disease?(Required)
5. A tricuspid regurgitation velocity of 5m/s suggests what value for the right ventricle to right atrial pressure gradient?(Required)

Three-Dimensional Cardiac Imaging to Understand Anatomy

1. Why is three-dimensional imaging of the heart advantageous compared to two-dimensional ultrasound?(Required)
2. Imaging of the coronary artery circulation is optimal with what imaging modality?(Required)
3. How does transesophageal echocardiography differ from transthoracic echocardiography?(Required)
4. What is an advantage of using CT to visualize the pulmonary vessels over echocardiography?(Required)
5. Transesophageal echocardiography can help guide treatment for which interventional therapies?(Required)

European Cardiology Zebra Diagnoses – Multimodality Diagnostics (Peter)

1. Congenital heart disease can appear in various combinations(Required)
2. In some cases, multimodality imaging provides additional valuable information(Required)
3. If the clinical picture does not match the standard diagnostic findings, further workup is required(Required)
4. EKG-gated CT is particularly useful for the detection of coronary anomalies in dogs(Required)
5. A thorough understanding of pathophysiology is required in order to understand complex congenital heart diseases and to take the right decisions in terms of treatment(Required)

Round Table Q & A

1. Pericardial effusion can occur in mitral cases. What are potential causes?(Required)
2. The theory behind not starting acei immediately in left sided congested heart failure and initiating with Lasix, spironolactone and pimobendan is concern for which of the following?(Required)
3. True or false? Mitral inflow E wave evaluation can be helpful in B2+/Early stage C cases to consider more aggressive therapy and help ascertain if left sided heart failure is eminent.(Required)
4. True or false? Telemedicine based recommendations can often more conservative regarding treatment recommendations owing to the lack of the specialist direct conversations with the pet owner in the case management.(Required)
5. When do the panel cardiologists typically recheck echocardiograms in clinically stable patients?(Required)
6. True or False? NT-ProBNP is a function of myocardial stretch.(Required)
7. True or false? BNP has a high level of false + but low level of false negatives and should be utilized on patient selection criteria based on risk factors.(Required)
8. BNP elevations can be cardiac in origin or owing to systemic disease. Which of the following are potential causes of BNP elevations?(Required)
9. True or False? Treatment of non-clinical obstructive compensated feline HCM with beta blockers is well supported in the literature(Required)
10. True or False? Exertional chest pain/angina in cats is likely underrecognized in obstructive HCM cats.(Required)
11. Coronary obstruction by myocardial bridging may be an underlying clinical cause in obstructive HCM cats.(Required)
12. True or False? Atenolol trial may be appropriate in some cats and treatment success may be evaluated by patient activity and wellness assessment post therapy.(Required)
13. True or False? Panting in a cat is likely a cause of obstructive HCM in cats.(Required)
14. True or False? Left ventricular hypertrophy is indicative of HCM(Required)
15. True or False? Obstructive HCM in adolescent dogs without aortic stenosis (SAS) may be temporary and potentially improve or resolve once reaching maturity.(Required)
16. Sleeping respiratory rate is more clinically important in cardiac failure cases when(Required)
17. Treatment options for end stage heart failure after pimobendan, ace inhibitors, furosemide and +/- spironolactone have been implemented when left-sided heart failure is decompensating include:(Required)
18. Subaortic stenosis cases that are severe (> 4.5 m/sec LVOT velocity) may find some benefit (debatable) with the following treatment more than other interventions according to the panel(Required)
19. Aortopulmonary shunt or other intervention is available for Tetralogy of Fallot and should be considered when all of the following are present except:(Required)
20. True or False? Tetralogy of Fallot that has a concurrent PDA can occur and can be beneficial as a compensatory mechanism for the patient.(Required)